Archivo para enero 31st, 2016

Conceptual Framework of Smart Grid Alternatives

Microgrids are both partand beneficiariesof the smart-grid concept. Is evident thatthere are objectives
shared between microgrids and the smart-grid concept: reduce the costs of energy and the reliability, efficiency and security improvement. Also, there are benefits which are linked to the useof smart-grid technologies: the deployment ofgreen technologies, different levels of quality and the use of demand response strategies

René B. Martínez-Cid. “Renewable-Driven Microgrids in Isolated Communities”. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering. University of Puerto Rico. Mayagüez Campus. 2009.


Schematic of a typical wind diesel hybrid system with storage

One of the most promising applications of renewable energy technology is the installation of hybrid
energy systems (HES) in remote areas, where the grid extension is costly and the cost of fuel increases drastically with the remoteness of the location. Recent research have shown that HES have an excellent potential, as a form of supplementary contribution to conventional power generation systems. In figure, one of the most common hybrid renewable system implemented and studied is described.

Francisco Goncalves Goina Mesquita. “Design Optimization of Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy Systems”. A Dissertation submitted under the scope of Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores Major Energia. Fevereiro de 2010. Facultade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto.


Topology of a generic VPP showing the integration of energy, electrical and information system

The figure shows the minimum requirements for a VPP: a number of small participants (consumers or DERs); a communications network (the internet or dedicated lines); a communication platform with a common information model and a consensus on the communication architecture; a primary energy supply network; and a link to the energy market. The primary energy supply is the foundation of the VPP, the communication system forms the glue holding the VPP together, and the market link is the incentive which drives the system to service the needs of its owners and customers.A VPP may be dispersed over a large area, though in the case of islands and other microgrids it may equally well have tight geographical limits.

Riso Energy Report 8. “The intelligent energy system infraestructure for the future”. Riso National Laboratory. Technical University of Denmark. September 2009. ISBN 978-87-550-3754-0

National renewable energy UE targets as a percentage of final energy consumption

In Europe this growth is driven by both national and EU policies. By 2008 the EU member states had adopted longterm targets in three different areas of energy policy:

• a binding reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 20% by 2020 compared to 1990; this target can be raised to 30%  subject to the conclusion of binding international climate change agreements;

• a mandatory target for renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass, which by 2020 must supply 20% of the EU’s final energy demand; and

• a voluntary agreement to cut EU energy consumption by 20% by 2020, compared to a reference projection.

The EU has also set a target of 10% renewable energy, including biofuels, in transport by 2020.

This new policy, with its increasing reliance on renewable  sources, will change European energy systems radically within the next decade. Energy technologies based on variable sources, especially wind power but to a lesser extent also wave power and PV, are expected to play a large role in the future energy supply. For example, by 2020 wind power is expected to supply 50% of the Danish electricity consumption – implying that from time to time significantly more wind power will be available than Denmark can consume1. This challenge will require not only significant changes in energy system structure, but also the development of intelligence within the system

Riso Energy Report 8. “The intelligent energy system infraestructure for the future”. Riso National Laboratory. Technical University of Denmark. September 2009. ISBN 978-87-550-3754-0

gross energy consumption in Denmarks buildings during the period 1995 2060

A study of the potential savings in energy used for heating of existing domestic buildings in Denmark has shown that savings of 60-80% in the period up to 2050 are possible if extensive energy conservation measures are put in place whenever the buildings are renovated (see Figure). The assumption is that during this period the entire building stock is either replaced by new buildings or renovated to the energy standards of new buildings. This would cut Denmark’s total final energy consumption by around 30%. A major part of these savings up to 2050 come from renovation…

Riso Energy Report 6. “Future options for energy technologies”. Riso National Laboratory. Technical University of Denmark. November 2007. ISBN 978-87-550-3611-6

Denmark’s  gross energy  consumption  and  primary  energy

Denmark is the only net exporter of energy in the EU. In 2005, production from Danish oil and gas fields in the North sea exceeded the country’s gross energy consumption by 56%. At the same time Denmark has an environmentally-friendly energy profile that includes considerable amounts of renewable energy, especially wind power; strong energy efficiency measures; and widespread use of combined heat and power (CHP). For more than 20 years Denmark has kept its gross energy consumption almost constant, with an increase of just 4% since 1985, despite a 70% increase in gross national product in the same period. In short, Denmark is in a far better energy situation than most countries in the EU

Riso Energy Report 6. “Future options for energy technologies”. Riso National Laboratory. Technical University of Denmark. November 2007. ISBN 978-87-550-3611-6

Market Sector Revenue Breakdown North America 2015 Pike Research

Community/Utility Microgrids:The word “community” implies a geographical region  that includes residential customers. Most observers predict that this class of microgrids will not achieve widespread commercial acceptance until standards are in place and regulatory barriers are removed.

Commercial/Industrial:The first “modern” industrial microgrid in the United States was a 64 MW facility constructed in 1955 at the Whitling Refinery in Indiana. All told, 455 megawatts (MW) of these vintage microgrids are currently online in the United States. Unlike today’s conceptual state-of-the-art models, these initial designs for the petrochemical industry still feature centralizedcontrols and fossil-fueled generation sets. Japan is a modern leader in the commercial/industrial sector, though most of its microgrids include governmental and other institutional customers.

Institutional/Campus:Because of the advantage of common ownership, this class of microgrids offers the best near-term development opportunity. At present, 322 MW of college campus microgrids are up and running in the United States, with more sophisticated state-of-the-art microgrids on the drawing boards. In the U.S., 40% of future microgrids will be developed in this market segment, adding 940 MW of new
capacity valued at $2.76 billion by 2015.

Remote Off-Grid Systems:This segment represents the greatest number of microgrids currently operating globally, but it has the smallest average capacity. While many systems have historically featured diesel distributed energy generation (DEG), the largest growth sector is solar photovoltaics (PV). Small wind is projected to play a growing role, as well.

Military Microgrids:The smallest market segment, these microgrids are just now being developed. They are integrating Renewable Distributed Energy Generation (RDEG) as a way to secure power supply without being dependent on any supplied fuel. GE and Sandia are moving forward in this area and model prototypes are expected in 2010.

Peter Asmus. Adam Cornelus. Clint Wheelock. “Microgrids: Islanded Power Grids and Distributed Generation for Community, Commercial, and Institutional Apllications”. Research Report. PikeResearch. 2009.