Simplified layout of a dc microgrid

The dc microgrid considered is schematically shown in Fig. As for a typical dc microgrid, it consists of the following mainelements:
• variable (nondeterministic) generations and, in this example, a wind turbine using permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG); the maximum power output from the wind turbine is largely determined by the wind condition;
• controlled (deterministic) generation (e.g., a diesel generator or with ac grid connection); as shown in Fig, the dc grid in this example is connected to an external ac system via a dc-ac converter which provides bidirectionalpower-flow capability;
• variable loads with different characteristics; a number of ac and dc loads can be anticipated (e.g., ac loads via dc-ac inverters, dc loads via dc-dc converters, and direct-connected dc loads, etc.);
• energy storage (ES) system to accommodate the presence of variable generation and load, and the requirement of possible island operation (i.e., connection to the external ac system being lost)

Reference:
Lie Xu, Dong Chen. “Control and Operation of a DC Microgrid With Variable Generation and Energy Storage”. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 26, No. 4, October 2011




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