Archivo para febrero 22nd, 2016


Path to the Perfect Power System

The basic philosophy in developing the perfect power system is first to increase the independence, flexibility, and intelligence for optimization of energy use and energy management at the local level; and then to integrate local systems as necessary or justified for deliveringperfect power supply and services.

This path started with the notion that increasingly consumers expect perfection in the end-use devices and appliances they have. Not only does portability enable a highly mobile digital society; but also once perfection in portability is defined, it provides elements of perfection that enable, in turn, a localize perfect system. Localized perfect systems can also accommodate increasing consumer demands for independence, convenience, appearance, environmentally friendly service and cost control.

Local systems can in turn be integrated into distributed perfect systems. Distributed perfect systems can, in turn be interconnected and integrated with technologies that ultimately enable a fully integrated perfect power system. The figure summarizes each of these system configuration stages.

Each of these configurations can essentially be considered a possible structure for the perfect power system in its own right, but each stage logically evolves to the next stage based on the efficiencies, and quality or service value improvements to be attained. In effect, these potential system configuration stages build on each other starting from a portable power system connected to other portable power systems which then can evolve into a building integrated power system, a distributed power system and eventually to a fully integrated power system.

Source:
Clark W. Gellings.The Smart Grid. CRC Press. 2009. ISBN-10 0-88173-623-6

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Transformer Efficiency with Amorphous Metal Core Compared with Conventional Steel Core

Transformer losses consist of two types: core (or “no-load”) losses and winding losses (also called “coil” or “load” losses). Core losses result from the magnetizing and de-magnetizing of the transformer core during normal operation; they do not vary with load, but occur whenever the core is energized. Amorphous core transformers can reduce these core losses by as much as 80% compared with conventional materials (see Figure).

Winding losses occur when supplying power to a connected load. Winding loss is a function of the resistance of the winding material—copper or aluminum—and varies with the load. Conventional transformers use aluminum winding and are designed to operate at temperatures up to 150°C/270°F above ambient. Newer high-efficiency transformers use copper winding, reducing the size of the core, the associated core losses, and the operating temperatures to 80°C or 115°C (145°F to 207°F) above ambient. Hence, overall transformer efficiency is lowest under light load, and highest at rated load, regardless of which core material is used

Source:
Metglas & Clark W. Gellings.The Smart Grid. CRC Press. 2009. ISBN-10 0-88173-623-6


Smart Grid Concept EPRI IntelliGrid Program

A consortium was created by EPRI to help the energy industry pave the way to IntelliGridSM —the architecture of the smart grid of the future. Partners are utilities, manufactures and representatives of the public sector. They fund and manage research and development (R&D) dedicated to implementing the concepts of the IntelliGridSM.

The objective: The convergence of greater consumer choice and rapid advances in the communications, computing and electronics industries is influencing a similar change in the power industry. The growing knowledge-based economy requires a digital power delivery system that links information technology with energy delivery.


Summary of Potential Smart Grid Benefits

A smart grid has the potential to benefit the environment, consumers, utilities and the nation as a whole in numerous ways, as summarized in Figure. The benefits include the mechanisms for enhanced reliability and power quality as well as energy savings and carbon emission reductions, plus other dividends

Source:
EPRI Report 1016905, “The Green Grid,” June 2008