J940e: Transformer Efficiency with Amorphous Metal Core Compared with Conventional Steel Core


Transformer Efficiency with Amorphous Metal Core Compared with Conventional Steel Core

Transformer losses consist of two types: core (or “no-load”) losses and winding losses (also called “coil” or “load” losses). Core losses result from the magnetizing and de-magnetizing of the transformer core during normal operation; they do not vary with load, but occur whenever the core is energized. Amorphous core transformers can reduce these core losses by as much as 80% compared with conventional materials (see Figure).

Winding losses occur when supplying power to a connected load. Winding loss is a function of the resistance of the winding material—copper or aluminum—and varies with the load. Conventional transformers use aluminum winding and are designed to operate at temperatures up to 150°C/270°F above ambient. Newer high-efficiency transformers use copper winding, reducing the size of the core, the associated core losses, and the operating temperatures to 80°C or 115°C (145°F to 207°F) above ambient. Hence, overall transformer efficiency is lowest under light load, and highest at rated load, regardless of which core material is used

Source:
Metglas & Clark W. Gellings.The Smart Grid. CRC Press. 2009. ISBN-10 0-88173-623-6




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