Archivo para marzo 17th, 2016


System topology for the smart grid in transition

In the not too distant future, the smart grid will emerge as a system of organically integrated smart microgrids with pervasive visibility and command-and-control functions distributed across all levels. The topology of the emerging grid will therefore resemble a hybrid solution, the core intelligence of which grows as a function of its maturity and extent. Figure shows the topology of the smart grid in transition.

Source:
Hassan Farhangi “The Path of the Smart Grid” IEEE Power & Energy Mazagine. January/February 2010. Pag 18 -28.

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The smart grid of the future

As Figure shows, the smart grid is therefore expected to emerge as a well-planned plug-and-play integration of  smart microgrids that will be interconnected through dedicated highways for command, data, and power exchange.  The emergence of these smart microgrids and the degree  of their interplay and integration will be a function of rapidly escalating smart grid capabilities and requirements. It is also expected that not all microgrids will be created equal. Depending on their diversity of load, the mix of primary energy sources, and the geography and economics at work in particular areas, among other factors, microgrids will be built with different capabilities, assets, and structures.

Source:
Hassan Farhangi “The Path of the Smart Grid” IEEE Power & Energy Mazagine. January/February 2010. Pag 18 -28.


The existing grid

As Figure demonstrates, the existing electricity grid is  a strictly hierarchical system in which power plants at the top of the chain ensure power delivery to customers’ loads  at the bottom of the chain. The system is essentially a oneway pipeline where the source has no real-time information about the service parameters of the termination points. The grid is therefore overengineered to withstand maximum anticipated peak demand across its aggregated load. And since this peak demand is an infrequent occurrence, the system is inherently inefficient. Moreover, an unprecedented rise in demand for electrical power, coupled with lagging investments in the electrical power infrastructure, has decreased system stability. With the safe margins exhausted, any unforeseen surge in demand or anomalies across the distribution network causing component failures can trigger catastrophic blackouts.

Source:
Hassan Farhangi “The Path of the Smart Grid” IEEE Power & Energy Mazagine. January/February 2010. Pag 18 -28.


Basic Smart Grid ingredients

As Figure depicts, the convergence of communication technology and information technology with power system engineering, assisted by an array of new approaches,  technologies and applications, allows the existing grid to traverse the complex yet staged trajectory of architecture, protocols, and standards towards the smart grid.

Source:
Hassan Farhangi “The Path of the Smart Grid” IEEE Power & Energy Mazagine. January/February 2010. Pag 18 -28.


The smart grid compared with the existing grid

The smart grid needs to provide the utility companies with full visibility and pervasive control over their assets and services. The smart grid is required to be self-healing and resilient to system anomalies. And last but not least, the smart grid needs to  empower its stakeholders to define and realize new ways of engaging with each other and performing energy transactions across the system. To allow pervasive control and monitoring, the smart grid is emerging as a convergence of information technology and communication technology with power system engineering. Figure depicts the salient features of the smart grid in comparison with the existing grid.

Source:
Hassan Farhangi “The Path of the Smart Grid” IEEE Power & Energy Mazagine. January/February 2010. Pag 18 -28.