The figure in this post shows the simplest type of circuit in which the series capacitor is protected by a self-triggered spark gap. The spark gap is set to flashover at a given voltage, usually in the range of 2.0–3.5 per unit (where 1.0 per unit is equal to the crest voltage produced across the series capacitor at rated current). But, the spark gap may not fire for low-current faults. Therefore, the line protection scheme must also perform properly with the series capacitor still in operation. The bypass breaker is used by an operator to remove the capacitor bank from the service for maintenance and for reinserting the capacitor bank into the service following these intentional removals


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