Archive for the ‘Centrales Eléctricas’ Category


J988_Comparación de generación de electricidad con Recursos Geotérmicos

En lo que son energías renovables hay diferentes tecnologías que permiten la generación de electricidad a partir de fuentes renovables. En la gráfica se muestra una comparación entre ellas, aunque sinceramente esto de las “Pequeñas Hidroeléctricas” no debería ser planteado como fuentes renovables, porque de hasta 20 MW ya involucra un cambio serio en el entorno medioambiental, hay que colocar un embalse y varias cosas más incluido la infraestructura y cambia el microclima local… Creo que lo colocaron para que digan: “estamos haciendo algo”… Bueno, hay calificativo de favorable y no favorable para los siguientes conceptos: Costos de generación; potencial técnico; desarrollo de la industria; estabilidad de la planta; factor de capacidad; potencial de uso combinado; emisiones de CO2 y uso de tierras.

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J987_Planta Geotérmica para la Generación de Electricidad_Diagrama 1 J987_Planta Geotérmica para la Generación de Electricidad_Diagrama 2

En el presente post se muestra dos esquemas de uso de la energía geotérmica para la generación de electricidad hechos con el diseño de tipo binario. El fluido caliente proveniente del interior del planeta asciende y en la superficie ingresa a un intercambiador de calor en que cede parte de su calor hacia un segundo fluido el cual no tiene contacto directo con el fluido proveniente del pozo geotérmico. El vapor saturado o sobrecalentado se ingresa a una turbina de vapor de agua en el que parte de su energía se transforma en energía mecánica de rotación y se va expandiendo hasta su salida de la turbina en la que luego pasa a un condensador. El sistema puede tener una parte de alta y baja presión, es decir, una turbina de alta presión y otra turbina de baja presión. Útil en campos geotérmicos cuando se tiene altas temperaturas y presiones.

Para variar hay los que el vapor sale del pozo geotérmico e ingresa a un separador de vapor, en la que el líquido se reinyecta al pozo y el vapor pasa hacia la turbina de vapor. Acá hay que tener en cuenta la calidad del vapor por un lado y los componentes del vapor de agua por otro lado, dado que el agua en vapor no es corrosivo pero si los componentes que son arrastrados por el fluido proveniente del pozo geotérmico. El vapor forzado a recorrer la turbina entrega parte de su energía y la mezcla líquido – vapor a la salida se condensa y se reingresa hacia el interior del planeta.

Hay que considerar que hay una eficiencia en convertir parte de la energía térmica en mecánica y electricidad y eso es algo que se desea, pero tanto ya el consumo de dicha energía por el usuario final y la energía que se disipa hacia el medio ambiente por parte del condensador para volver líquida el agua, contribuyen a incrementar la carga térmica sobre el medio ambiente (por lo general la atmósfera) por el principio de conservación de la energía.


J981_Distribución de placas tectónicas y puntos de mayor entalpía en la Tierra

En la figura del presente post se observa el nombre de las placas que hay en el planeta y su dirección de desplazamiento. Los puntos rojos son los lugares del planeta con mayor entalpía (esto quiere decir que las fuentes geotérmicas tienen el mayor valor de energía térmica contenida medible y potencialmente utilizable). En Sudamérica tenemos entre Perú y Chile y en el Ecuador, zonas de interés. La dirección de las placas pueden indicarnos las principales interacción entre ellas. Las placas actuales cumplen el patrón de movimiento desde la época del continente único Pangea hace millones de años, progresivamente avanzan en sus direcciones unos centímetros al año, es decir, constantemente hay desplazamientos entre placas y los sismógrafos siempre tendrán lecturas de ondas sísmicas (y acá no viene al caso de las tontas noticias periodísticas que “uy hubo sismo… la naturaleza se manifiesta”… obviamente da a saber su total desinformación e ignorancia…

Conferencia “Motivación en Ingeniería Mecánica Eléctrica, Biomédica y Espacial”. Ciclo de Charlas de Motivación – Lugar Polideportivo Colegio Nacional San Juan de Chota, Chota – Perú. Lunes 20 Junio 2016 – 9 am. Organiza: Promoción Bodas de Plata 1987-1991 “Horacio Zeballos Gamez” – CN San Juan de Chota (in spanish)


Global cumulative installed wind power capacity from 1999 to 2020

The cumulative wind power capacity from 1999 to 2020 is shown in Figure, and it can be seen that the wind power has grown fast to a capacity of 283 GW with ∼45 GW installed only in 2012, and this number is expected to achieve 760 GW in 2020 on moderate scenario [9]. The wind power grows more significant than any other renewable energy sources and is becoming really an important player in the modern energy supply system. As an extreme example Denmark has a high penetration by wind power and today > 30% of the electric power consumption is covered by wind. This country has even the ambition to achieve 100% nonfossil-based power generation system by 2050.

Source:
Frede Blaabjerg and Ke Ma “Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems” IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, Vol. 1, No. 3, September 2013


Five-level cascaded multilevel converter connected to a multipole low-speed wind-turbine generator

The use of low-speed permanent-magnet generators that have a large number of poles allows obtaining the dc sources from the multiple wounds of this electrical machine, as can be seen in Figure. In this case, the power-electronic building block (PEBB) can be composed of a rectifier, a dc link, and an H-bridge. Another possibility is to replace the rectifier by an additional H-bridge. The continuous reduction of the cost per kilowatt of PEBBs is making the multilevel cascaded topologies to be the most commonly used by the industrial solutions. This as one alternative to multinivel conversors.

Source:
Juan Manuel Carrasco, Leopoldo García Franquelo, Jan T. Bialasiewicz, Eduardo Galván, Ramón C. Portillo Guisado, Ángeles Martín Prats, José Ignacio León and Narciso Moreno-Alfonso “Power-Electronic Systems for the Grid integration of Renewable Energy Sources: A Survey”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 4, August 2006


Two HVDC transmission solutions_Classical LCC-based system with STATCOM and VSC-based system

Classical HVDC transmission systems [as shown in Figure (a)] are based on the current source converters with naturally commutated thyristors, which are the so-called linecommutated converters (LCCs). This name originates from the fact that the applied thyristors need an ac voltage source in order to commutate and thus only can transfer power between two active ac networks. They are, therefore, less useful in connection with the wind farms as the offshore ac grid needs to be powered up prior to a possible startup. A further disadvantage of LCC-based HVDC transmission systems is the lack of the possibility to provide an independent control of the active and reactive powers. Furthermore, they produce large amounts of harmonics, which make the use of large filters inevitable. Voltage-source converter (VSC)-based HVDC transmission systems are gaining more and more attention not only for the grid connection of large offshore wind farms. Figure (b) shows the schematic of a VSC-based HVDC transmission system

Source:
Juan Manuel Carrasco, Leopoldo García Franquelo, Jan T. Bialasiewicz, Eduardo Galván, Ramón C. Portillo Guisado, Ángeles Martín Prats, José Ignacio León and Narciso Moreno-Alfonso “Power-Electronic Systems for the Grid integration of Renewable Energy Sources: A Survey”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 4, August 2006


Double three-phase VSI

The figure shows the scheme of a full power converter for a wind turbine. The machine-side three-phase converter works as a driver controlling the torque generator, using a vector control strategy. The grid-side three-phase converter permits windenergy transfer into the grid and enables to control the amount of the active and reactive powers delivered to the grid. It also keeps the total-harmonic-distortion (THD) coefficient as low as possible, improving the quality of the energy injected into the public grid. The induction generator of wind turbine is connected to a voltage-source inverter (VSI) used as a rectifier

Source:
Juan Manuel Carrasco, Leopoldo García Franquelo, Jan T. Bialasiewicz, Eduardo Galván, Ramón C. Portillo Guisado, Ángeles Martín Prats, José Ignacio León and Narciso Moreno-Alfonso “Power-Electronic Systems for the Grid integration of Renewable Energy Sources: A Survey”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 4, August 2006


Other example of microgrid con cell fuel wind turbine PV microturbine battery bank and loads

This microgrid have different elements: wind turbine, photovoltaics, fuel cell, battery bank, microturbine and interconection with main grifd. The level power is little but it is a interesting microgrid for study. It is a typical AC microgrid with load distribuited in many locations into microgrid. Main grind is a sub-transmission network in 20 kV.

Image Source:
Aris L. Dimeas, Nikos D. Natziargyriou “Operation of Multiagent System for Microgrid Control” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 3, August 2005.


distribution demand between micosourses electrical network external and storage in a microgrid DC

Sun –> energy provided from photovoltaic energy plant.
Wind –> similar from wind turbine(s)
Batt –> similar from battery bank
ene –> similar injected from electrical network external or utility electric network

In other image in red is the total suministed for this sources and red line is the demand. Other images is cost, evoluction of energy supply from each source and more details. It is made for me (Jorge Mírez) in Matlabb/Simulink and I utilized concept of linear programming. Image is from my destokp laptop.


A block diagram of grid interconnection unit

There is a significative difference storage system and electric power system interconnection unit. The microgrid usually has as high power from grid point of view that it is connected to medium voltage fine, typically 15 kV in Poland. Although the power system interconnection unit has almost the structure as storage system, its primary voltage is in range of kilovolts and is sinusoidal. So, it requires different power electronic converter. It is assumed in Poland that all devices connected to 15 kV lines have to be joined using 50 Hz transformer. Hence, the grid interconnection unit can have a structure shown in Figure.

Source:
Piotr Biczel. “Power Electronic Converters in DC Microgrid”. IEEE 5th International Conference – Workshop, Compatibility in Power Electronics, CPE 2007. Poland.


General block diagram of the DC microgrid power plant

El block diagram structure of a microgrid is shown in Figure. The main task of the power plant’s power electronic converter is to fit primary energy converter’s output voltage to the microgrid power line voltage, and source operating point control as well as low and high level microgrid’s control. The converter’s structure depends on a type of primary energy converter. A common feature of the converters concerns their output current. It should be permanent and low ripple.

Source:
Piotr Biczel. “Power Electronic Converters in DC Microgrid”. IEEE 5th International Conference – Workshop, Compatibility in Power Electronics, CPE 2007. Poland.


Example of power supply for office building using DC bus

In the office there are many electronic equipment, it for the general, to use DC voltage. There is certain paradigme about the data center made more for market that for technical reasons… ups, many companies it not like. Ok, the figure shown the special configuration (a example) of electrical supply to equipment office. Very good, it is a representative used of potential DC microgrids.

Source of Figure:
N. R. Rahmanov, N. M. Tabatabaei, K. Dursun, O. Z. Kerimov. “Combined AC-DC Microgrids: Case Study – Network Development and Simulation” International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering. September 2012, Issue 12, Volume 4, Number 3, Pages 157 – 161.


Configuration of a dc microgrid application system

This DC microgrid have three photovoltaic solar plant, pne DC load, battery bank and microsource with DC/AC 3 -Phase Bi-directional Inverter, all components conected to DC bus of microgrid. Great !!

Reference:
T. F. Wu, C. H. Chang, L. C. Lin and Y. C. Chang. “DC-Bus Voltage Control for Three-Phase Bi-directional Inverter in DC Microgrid Applications”. Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2012 Twenty-Seventh Annual IEEE


when the priority is sun wind battery utility network

This simulation is about microgrid with solar and wind source, battery storage and utility network. It have cost differents and the simulation is para 96 time’s step. The distance between time’s step is configurable and it depend of characteristic of each source and all source in general. Made on Matlab of Math/Works Inc.

 


simulations load diagram electric

During operation a microgrid, sometimes; renewable energy sources and the external power grid, dispatched electric energy simultaneously. Sometimes, many sources is neccesary for supply to electric load. Also, all it, considering both economic and technical criteria. The figure represent la connection and disconnetion of sources for each state of performance of a microgrid. Too, it is applicable to other similar electric systems.


energy of each source accumulate

In a microgrid, each energy source is required according to the criterion of costs and production capacity. During the operation time, accumulative energy from each source is represented in the figure. Criteria of linear optimization has been used in this modelling and simulation. This allows determining the nominal capacity and the ability to respond to sudden requests. Made on Matlab of MathWorks Inc.


National renewable energy UE targets as a percentage of final energy consumption

In Europe this growth is driven by both national and EU policies. By 2008 the EU member states had adopted longterm targets in three different areas of energy policy:

• a binding reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 20% by 2020 compared to 1990; this target can be raised to 30%  subject to the conclusion of binding international climate change agreements;

• a mandatory target for renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass, which by 2020 must supply 20% of the EU’s final energy demand; and

• a voluntary agreement to cut EU energy consumption by 20% by 2020, compared to a reference projection.

The EU has also set a target of 10% renewable energy, including biofuels, in transport by 2020.

This new policy, with its increasing reliance on renewable  sources, will change European energy systems radically within the next decade. Energy technologies based on variable sources, especially wind power but to a lesser extent also wave power and PV, are expected to play a large role in the future energy supply. For example, by 2020 wind power is expected to supply 50% of the Danish electricity consumption – implying that from time to time significantly more wind power will be available than Denmark can consume1. This challenge will require not only significant changes in energy system structure, but also the development of intelligence within the system

Source:
Riso Energy Report 8. “The intelligent energy system infraestructure for the future”. Riso National Laboratory. Technical University of Denmark. September 2009. ISBN 978-87-550-3754-0


a hybrid ac-dc microgrid system

La figura muestra el concepto de un sistema híbrido ac/dc donde varias fuentes y cargas ac y dc son conectadas a sus correspondientes redes ac y dc. Las redes ac y dc están conectadas a través de dos transformadores y conversores trifásicos ac/dc bidireccionales. Pueden observar la diversidad de micro fuentes que se está utilizando en la descripción de la microred, incluye los diferentes dispositivos de electrónica de potencia que sirven para adecuar la energía eléctrica desde fuentes y para cargas eléctricas. Hay vehículos eléctricos conectados a la microred. Los generadores eólicos tienen diferentes configuración de control (diferentes tipos de turbinas eólicas). Un grupo electrógeno diesel también se da, dado que estos grupos se consideran los que en último caso darán energía a la microred eléctrica en situaciones ya críticas pero a la vez rentables en lo posible en economía. Para todo esto se crea modelos matemáticos de cada elemento y luego se integran en un solo programa en que se puedan cambiar las condiciones de trabajo y analizar las variables de respuesta de lo que se desea estudiar. Yo lo hago en Matlab/Simulink para quienes deseen que les brinde el servicio de asesoramiento.


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